Friday, September 20, 2019

What Is Postmodern Culture Religion Essay

What Is Postmodern Culture Religion Essay Some people see postmodern culture as liberating because it has broken away from the limitations of modern culture. Others see postmodern culture as superficial and pastiche of the worst aspects of modernism. Before we can explore these cultural themes and what they stand for, we must first define them. For the purpose of this essay I will not be going into much detail about the origins, features and differences when considering the concept of culture. But I will be focusing on the differences of modern-and post modern culture. To start with a simple definition according to Kidd (2003), culture means the way of life of a group of people. The patterns of social organisation and the normal ways in which we are supposed to behave in society touch all aspects of our daily lives. For obvious reasons not all cultures are similar, for example, just because social life, for us, happens to be structured in a certain way, does not mean that it has to be like this, nor that it was like this in the past or even like this in other societies around the world (Kidd, 2003:5-6). The sociologist Raymond Williams (1983), in his book Key Words: a vocabulary of culture and society, says: Culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language. This is partly so because of its intricate historical development, in several European languages, but mainly because it now come to be used for important concepts in several distinct and incompatible systems of thought(Kidd, 2003:9). Two of these incompatible systems of thought can be considered to be modern- and postmodern culture. Modernity According to Kidd (2003), what we call modernity is usually associated with the era of industrialisation and the time when sociology was developed by its founders. Modernity-the period of the modern-comes from the Latin word modo, which means just now, and this key feature in the modernist spirit is: the founders idea that life and society had changed. Their times their just now were totally different from those of the traditional preindustrial societies of the past (Kidd, 2003:85). Modernity can be characterised by the following elements: industrialisation; urbanisation; a rise in the importance of science; the growth of the manufacturing industry, secularisation (the decline of religion); the invention of more advanced technology; rationalisation (Kidd, 2003:85). Modernity was the age of science, sociologists and discovery, based on the belief that humans could understand and control everything. The world of nature (uncertainty) was the slave and humans were now in charge. The mission statements of these scientists and sociologists were to find absolute truth, develop universal and general laws, to control the present, to predict the future and to control the shape and direction of the future (Kidd, 2003:85-86). Modernity was based on what is called the spirit of the Enlightenment- the eighteenth-century philosophical movement that addressed the importance of reason and the replacement of religion and superstition with science and rationality. According to Kidd (2003), Max Weber provided an excellent illustration of the modernists preoccupation with rationalisation in his sociology of music (1968, originally written in 1910-110). Weber saw the historical development of society as the development of rationality in all spheres of social life and social organisation. In this context rationalisation means the breaking down of an object of study into constituent parts in order better to understand the whole. Rationality is thus seen as a fundamental part of the rise of both science and technology in the industrial era, and as providing the momentum for industrialisation itself a highly modernist image of social change. Weber illustrated the historical development of rationality with reference to musical notation. For example in preindustrial traditional society, music was passed down the generations as part of folk culture. Songs were passed down by word of mouth and instrument making was the task of skilled people. With the onset of rationalisation there developed a concern to analyse what music actually was to break it down in order better to control it. Hence the creation of a universal system of notation, scales, tabs and so on. Just like the documentation and notation of music, the making of music instruments became a matter of mass production. The rationalisation process was seen as helping people to control the world around them: to seek out absolute truth and to make order out of the chaos of nature (Kidd, 2003: 86-87). Postmodernism It is very difficult to define the term postmodernism in one short definition because it covers such a large academic field and so much has been written on the subject. Let`s begin with a few short definitions and take it from there. Postmodernism refers to the intellectual mood and cultural expressions that are becoming increasingly dominant in contemporary society. These expressions questions the ideals, principles and values that lay at the heart of the modern mind-set. Post modernity, in turn, refers to the era in which we are living, the time when the postmodern outlook increasingly shapes our society. The adjective postmodern, then, refers to the mind-set and its products. Post modernity is the era in which postmodern ideas, attitudes, and values reign-when the mood of postmodernism is moulding culture. This is the era of the postmodern society. (Grenz, 1996: 12-13) According to Klages (2003) Postmodernism, which became an area of academic study in the mid eighties, is a term used to define the era after modernity. The Premodern (medieval) age was labelled the age of faith and superstition, followed by the modern age, the age of reason, empiricism and science. The postmodern age of relativity and, recently, the newest form of postmodernism, the age of holism and interdependence, followed. Respectively, the guiding metaphors are the created organism, the machine, the text, and the self-organizing system (de Quincy, 2002). Modernism has been introduced as a benchmark for the discussion of postmodernism, and two related terms, postmodern and postmodernist. One of the first writers to use the term postmodern was the American literary critic Ihab Hassan. In the second edition of his groundbreaking book from 1971, The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Literature (1982), he draws up a list of differences between modernism and postmodernism. This list tries to present the focus between modernism and postmodernism and the terms used. Although many of the categories have remained highly controversial, it still is worth reproducing here as a guideline between the difference in mindsets between the two eras: Postmodernism Pataphysics/Dadaism Antiform (disjuctive, open) Play Chance Anarchy Exhaustion/Silence Process/Performance/Happening Participation Decreation/Deconstruction Antithesis Absence Dispersal Text/Intertext Rhetoric Syntagm Parataxis Metonymy Combination Rhizome/Surface Against Interpretation/Misreading Signifier Scriptible (writerly) Antinarrative/Petite histoire Idiolect Desire Modernism Romanticism/Symbolism Form (conjunctive, closed) Purpose Design Hierarchy Mastery/Logos Art object/Finished work Distance Creation/Totalization Synthesis Presence Centring Genre/Boundary Semantics Paradigm Hypotaxis Metaphor Selection Root/Depth Interpretation/Reading Signified Lisible (readerly) Narrative/Grande histoire Master code Symptom Mutant Polymorphous/Androgynous Schizophrenia Difference-differance/trace The Holy Ghost Irony Indeterminacy Immanence Type Genital/Phallic Paranoia Origin/Cause God the Father Metaphysics Determinacy Transcendence (Hassan, 1982: 267-8; Malpas, 2005: 7-8) According to Anderson (1996) we are living in a new world, a world that does not know how to define itself by what it is, but only by what it has just-now ceased to be. This view takes the position that the world has changed so drastically that confusion has taken over from certainty. The modernist world was fixed and it had a definite character. The post modern perspective explains that the absolute truth and definite standards, that modernity held, has collapsed. In post modernity truth, certainty and reality are provisional and relativistic. This is the case according to Kidd (2003), not just for morality, but also for the knowledge we have about the world around us. There are too many choices out there, all claiming to be the real version of the truth. Religion, politics, the sciences and so on all claim special access to the truth, but how can we tell which is correct? Knowledge has become a commodity and a form of power, rather than an absolute, a truth. Just as truth fragments into a plurality of truths, so the traditional means of identity formation based on class, gender, ethnicity and so on has been replaced by an individual search for meaning, and life-style has become a matter of choice. Ultimately, uncertainty, confusion, ambiguity and plurality will be all that is left. The French thinker Jean-Francois Lyotard, in his book The Post modern Condition (1984: xxiv), defines postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives. What he means by this that in the postmodern age knowledge has become provisional and as humans we see the old claims to truth for they really are fictions, stories or narratives. Leyotard suggested that science and scientific knowledge have been exposed for what they are once powerful illusions that are powerful no longer. Hope can no longer be placed on the highly modernist notions of progress or reason since what claims to be knowledge depends on where one is, and how one chooses to see what is around one. There is no such thing as a single truth nothing more than a commodity. Knowledge can be bought and sold, and in the age of computer technology those who have the most knowledge have the most power (Kidd, 2003:90-91). According to Kidd (2003) a great deal of postmodern thinking is characterised by a belief called relativism. Relativism in postmodernism suggests that there are no absolute standards of truth, reality, morality and correctness, instead everything comes down to a matter of choice. This concept of relativism is in direct opposition to the modernist thinking discussed in the Modernity section of this paper. The founders believed in progress, development and objectivity but these are seen by postmodernists as nothing but stories, which in their time were powerful and shaped our thinking, but no longer. Critique of postmodernism While post modernism in itself serves as a critique on the principals of modernism, we havent explored any critique on post modernism yet. While many have embraced postmodern ideas, some have rejected them. According to Kidd (2003) the critics of postmodernism are concerned about the implications of these ideas for the future of sociology itself. If there is no such thing as truth, then what is the point of sociology trying to determine what the world is like? There are five main criticisms of postmodernism. First, according to Kidd (2003) is Norris (1992,1993), he considers that postmodernism is far too sceptical and relativistic to be of any use. Norris (1992) quotes an observation made by Tony Bennett: If narratives are all that we can have and if all narratives are, in principle, of equal value as it seems they must be if there is no touchstone of reality to which they can be referred for the adjudication of their truth-claims then rational debate would seem to be pointless. Secondly, according to Kidd (2003), Giddens (1990, 1991) notes with some concern that postmodernism does not give sociology a future. It denies the very Enlightenment spirit that led to the creation of sociology. For Giddens the postmodern denial of truth and reason leaves us with nothing upon which to gain knowledge and truth about the world. Third, according to Kidd (2003), many Marxists have showed that postmodernism may preach about the individual freedom and liberation from the modernists` past, but this freedom is an illusion since it is based on consumption. Given that consumption cost money, then surely some people are going to be more free than others? Postmodernism is said to provide a thinly veiled justification for the false needs created by the capitalist economy these simply ensures more profits for the capitalists themselves and thus ensures the perpetuation of an exploitative society. Fourth, according to Kidd (2003), if morality is indeed relative then this leaves us with no means of challenging, discrimination and prejudice in society. Finally According to Aylesworth (2005) the most prominent critic of postmodernism is Jà ¼rgen Habermas. In  The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity  (Habermas:1987), he criticises postmodernism at the level of society and communicative action. He defends modernists` argumentative reason in inter-subjective communication against postmodernism`s experimental, avant-garde strategies. For example, Habermans claims postmodernists commit a performative contradiction in their critiques of modernism by employing concepts and methods that only modern reason can provide. Which positions do I agree with? To conceptualize these two culture phenomenas in simple terms it would seem that modernism tends to be much more conservative than the liberal postmodernism. I will explain my position using the controversial animated TV show, South Park as example, from the view point of the episode I`m little bit country(Parker:2003). This episode originally aired during the build-up to the  2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq. The people of the town South Park are divided about the war. After splitting in two groups, both groups plan rallies: one pro-war (conservative: modernist), one anti-war (liberal: postmodernist), both on the same day in the same street. They end up having a great argument during both rallies, and in the end they get into a huge fight where they begin to kill each other. Benjamin Franklin (one of the founding fathers)  appears in the charracter, Eric Cartmans coma-dream and explains to him that the new country must not seem to be a war-monger to the rest of the world; at the same time it cannot seem to be weak either. Therefore it must go to war, but allow protests. The United States will go to war on one hand, and use protest to oppose the war on the other. He refers to the this as saying one thing and doing another. He refers to this as having our cake and eating it too. Cartman wakes up from his coma and delivers this message to the two fighting groups in the town, who see`s the truth of that statement and then break out into song (South Park Studios:2003). Thus my point is that we should apply both cultural phenomenas when living our lives but when doing so we should consider a healthy balance between the two. It would seem unreasonable to consider that everything has an absolute truth about it, because people and things change all the time and not everything is constant and controllable as the modernists would like to believe. On the other hand everything can`t be relative because there has to be absolute truth in world otherwise our lives would be uncertain in so many ways. For example all metals expand when heated is an absolute truth, when you jump of a 50 ft bridge, you are probably going to die. We need truth and freedom to coexist with one another, so if I have to label myself as a modernist or a postmodernist, then I am neither, I will take what I need when I need it . 2501 words

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Software Engineering :: essays research papers

Project 5: Good Neighbors Campaign Project Description: Develop a database to keep track of 20 data points for each of USC’s 10,000 employees for the past 10 years (and years to come). This database would need to have the ability to generate reports based on various queries in order to answer questions about donation trends among the University employees. Team Members: David Stark David Jeng Steven Cao Jamal Madni Contact: Aggie Afarinesh Campaign Finance Manager/Program Specialist Office of External Relations University of Southern California (213) 740-7400 CSCI 477—Project Deliverables Operational Concept Description 1.1 Summary The Good Neighbors Campaign (GNC) is an annual giving campaign for the staff and faculty of the University of Southern California. Funds raised by this campaign are granted to nonprofit community organizations located in the University Park and Health Sciences Campus neighborhoods. These funds go toward community development, economic development, health education and support, arts education, and after school programs for children. The University Of Southern California Office Of External Relations (USC OER) is looking for a database that can store all current and historic donations. They would also like a program or system that can streamline data collection as well as generate reports to track campaign effectiveness. Long-term goals include an easy user interface for the donation process. The system is being built because over the past ten years, the OER has collected a plethora of data and needs an efficient method of interacting and analyzing donation trends. They also would like to have this system implemented for the next campaign drive in fall 2005. At the moment, all data entry is done by hand by a single person. Also, the only way to interact with the database is through one administrator’s computer. The current process also poses a large potential of human error that could significantly compromise the database’s integrity. The new system will reduce the error and time of data entry. It will generate reports more easily and flexibly as well as inform department heads about the donation of their employees. It will also provide this functionality through a user friendly web interface. 1.1.1 Original Description from Client The OER is looking for a database that can integrate all of the donation history for the past ten years. This would include data points for each employee for each of the past ten years. All employee information must be accessed through the payroll department. 1.1.2 Organizational Goals Goal Identifier  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  OG-1 Organizational Goal  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Increase donations Measurable  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Since donations are pledged annually, donations will be measured with respect to previous years.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Leukemia Essay -- Health Medical Cancer

Leukemia Leukemia is a disease that affects blood-forming tissues, mainly bone marrow. Leukemia also affects the lymph glands and spleen. Leukemia causes the body to produce an extreme amount of abnormal white blood cells. This causes infections because the abnormal cells cannot stop infections like the normal cells do. Leukemia also causes anemia. Anemia is a disease in which the body makes less blood cells. This happens because the leukemic cells crowd the system. Leukemia also causes excessive bleeding. This happens because the amount of platelets will decrease and clotting will not occur, Researchers think a change in genetic structure causes leukemia. Changes in gene structure could be caused by environmental problems. Some of these problems could be: birth defects, radiation, viruses, and chemicals. Leukemia is not inherited and is not contagious. There are two major types of Leukemia, Lymphocytic and Granulocytic. In Lymphocytic Leukemia white blood cells known as Lymphocytes, which are made in the Lymph glands and bone marrow are abnormal or immature. In Granulocytic Leukemia this causes an increase in white blood cells known as granulocytes. Granulocytes are made in the bone marrow, and other tissue. Granulocytes that are affected by leukemia cannot fight of infections. There are two ways in which leukemia can occur. One is acute, and the other is chronic. Acute leukemia is found most in children. It progresses r...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Network Security Essay

Firewall:- A firewall is a software program or a piece of information that help screen out hackers, virus, worms and Trojan horse that try to reach to your computer over the internet. If you use a computer at home the most efficient and important step to help your computer to protect by turning on your firewall. If you have a more than one computer connects in home. It is important to protect every computer. You should have a hardware firewall (such as router) to protect your network, but you should also use software firewall on each computer to prevent the spread of virus your network. If your computer is a part of business, you should follow the policy established by network administrator. How it works:- When your firewall protection is turned on, everything that goes in and out of the network is monitored. The firewall monitors allows ‘good data’ in and block ‘bad data’ from entering your network. Firewall uses one or combination of the following method to control the traffic in and of the network:- 1) Packet filtering:- The most basic form of firewall software uses pre-determined rules to create different filters. If an incoming packet of data (small chunk of data) is flagged by the filters, it is not allowed through. Packets that make it through the filters are sent to requesting system and all others are discarded. 2) Proxy services:- A proxy service is an application that acts as an intermediary between systems. Information from the internet is received by the firewall and sent to the requesting system and vice versa.   Proxy server operates at the application layer of firewall, where both ends of the connection are forced to conduct session through the proxy. They operate by creating and running a process on the firewall that mirrors a service as if it were running on the host end, and thus centralize all the information transfer to the firewall for scanning. 3) Stateful inspection:- The most modern method of firewall scanning that does not rely on memory intensive examination is ‘Stateful inspection’. A Stateful firewall  holds significant attributes of each connection of trusted information for the duration of session. These attributes which are collectively known as state of the connection may include ip addresses, ports involved in the network and number of packets being transferred. Types:- There are two types of firewall that are as follows:- Hardware firewall. Software firewall. 1) Hardware firewall:- Hardware firewall built into the device such as routers and can protect every single machine on a network and require little configuration for efficient work. They mostly use packet filtering technique to examine the header of the packet, determining source and destination, then comparing the data to a set of predefine rules, they decide whether to ignore the packet or forward to the next step or to its final destination. 2) Software firewall:- Software firewalls are the most popular protection method for home users. They usually come as standalone applications or as a part of complete antivirus protection software. That is why it is mostly used in personal network. Antivirus such as bull guard provides besides providing protection for inbound and outbound traffic. A software firewall also protects against worms and Trojan horses. The software firewall must be regularly protected to keep up the latest technology updates and provides effective protection. NOTE:- Each type has advantages and disadvantages, ranging from ease of implementation to high initial cost. Companies should use the firewall as part of overall information security program that includes data integrity, application integrity and data confidentiality and authentication.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Reform movements of 1820-1860 in the United States Essay

2. How were the reform movements of 1820-1860 in the United States related to the growth of industry and urban life? During the years 1820-1860, America has received a wave of social reformation movements that were in correlation with the growth of industry and urban life. This time period, also known as the antebellum era (time period before the Civil War) brought movements such as: the temperance movement (1826-1840’s), the movement for public asylums (1820’s and 1830’s), the public education movement/reform (1820-1860), the women’s rights movement (1850’s) and the anti-slavery movement. All of these movements were in sync with to the growth of industry and urban life. The temperance movement arose because of the urban life people faced in the city (alcoholics); the movement for public asylums arose because of the countless of people that had disabilities and the number of homeless people in urban areas; the women’s rights movement arose because of the way men treated women in both industry and urban life; and the anti-slavery movement arose because of th e way industry was treating them (such as too much work and no pay). The temperance movement (1826) and the movement for public asylums (1820’s and 1830’s) both arose due to the conditions the people of the urban life were facing. The temperance movement arose because there were too many people drinking liquor excessively after working hours, and strengthened after the Irish immigrated to America during the 1830’s (since many people stereotyped the Irish as excessive drinkers, the temperance movement was mostly aimed towards them). Many of the people that drank liquor claimed that it relieved their stress from working too much in the factories. However, once those people got home, they caused family problems, and sometimes cause crimes. This urban problem was a big dilemma, so people organized themselves and formed a temperance movement to ask for the pledge of people to stay abstinent. Another movement that arose due to urban problems was the amount of people that were homeless and the ones that had  disabilities. Throughout 1820-1840, urban life was full of crime because of the number of homeless people that robbed others. There was also a big number of homeless people living on the streets because the city could did not have enough apartments to allow people in. The number of people that had disabilities also caused a problem in urban life because they had a hard time struggling to survive. That is why people formed the Asylum movement. This movement called for the building of shelters for the homeless, schools for the disabled people and medical centers for them. This movement helped improve urban life to become a more tranquil place. The women’s rights movement arose due to the way they were treated by men. However, the women’s rights movement didn’t begin with the snap of a finger. Since many women were busy taking care of the house and their children, they didn’t have time to involve themselves in movements to support their rights. However, when the Industrial Revolution came to America, men left home to work for salaries, which meant they had less time to spend with their wife. With the addition of birth control, women had fewer children, which meant that they had time for social reform. After entering this â€Å"phase† women came to a realization that they resented the way men neglected them to secondary roles (which was to take care of the house and children) in the movement and preventing them from taking part of anything that had to do with politics. This sort of thinking can be classified as an urban way of thinking because in an everyday urban day, the mother would stay at home while the father would go work to get his salary. Although women fought for their rights during the 1850’s, their movement was obscured by the anti-slavery movement. This movement arose because the industry of America was treating them bad. In the South, many slaves were put into hard labor because around the 1820’s to 1830’s, there was a very high demand for people wanting cotton. The anti-slavery movement was supported by the Second Great Awakening (a time period in America in which religious enlightenment flourished). The Second Great Awakening brought over that slavery was a sin, and since many people were very religious, they didn’t like the fact that they were sinners (urban life ideals). The anti-slavery movement also brought abolitionists together to fight for their  cause and it also brought abolitionist newspapers such as _The Liberator_. Many people also didn’t like the fact that slaves were seen as business (industry), which gave them another reason to form the movement. The antebellum era brought many social reforms to America, and they were all in relation to the way the industry was growing and the way people lived in urban life. The temperance movement was in response to the crimes and the alcoholics that arose during the 1830’s; the movement for public asylums arose because of the number of needy people that were homeless and disabled; the women’s rights movement arose due to the way they were treated by men in their urban life and the growth of industry; and the anti-slavery movement was in response to the unfair treatment of slaves, the idea that slavery was a sin, and the fact that slaves were seen as a market. All these reforms arose because the people were reacting to the things that were happening to urban life and the growth of industry, and in my opinion, I think all these reforms were made for the best of mankind because they led to a safer and secure life.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

American Psycho Book to Movie Essay

Allister Baudoin Mr. Jason Raush Lit. of Extreme Situations 8 April 2013 American Psycho Novel and Movie Comparison After the release of Bret Easton Ellis’ American Psycho, and the critical response that soon followed, many would believe that a film version of such a creatively gruesome novel would be an impossible task to undertake. The extended seemingly endless descriptions, stream of conscious narrative, countless scenes of grotesque violence, and not to mention a literary ban in both Germany and Australia are just a few reasons why so many believed a movie could never exist.However in the spring of 2000, director Mary Harron defied the odds and transformed this controversial work from hardcover to the big screen. Remarkably a huge success, the film captures the weaving, often-satirical, themes of the book, while staying true to the not so hidden horrors of a 1980’s New York yuppie turned serial killer Patrick Bateman. Where the book gave readers the eyes and insigh t of a warped Patrick Bateman, the movie displayed a more outward perspective, balancing the darkly comical with hints of insanity that built toward the unraveling of this American Psycho.Some may argue that serial killers are born with the inevitable urge to murder, while others believe these actions are a direct result of environmental culturing. The character of Patrick Bateman would justly cause anyone to question this notion. In the film, Mr. Batman, ingeniously portrayed by Christian Bale, begins the film with a seemingly levelheaded temperament. This illusion is short lived however and is broken when a scene, mirroring that of the second chapter of the book, shows Bateman’s obsessively thorough morning routine.The film quite accurately depicts the various products and processes that were read as lists upon lists of description within the novel. Another point in which Mary Harron illustrates the maddening obsessive tendencies of Bateman occurs during the often one-sided dialogues about his favorite musical artists. Full chapters of the novel are dedicated these shallow ramblings that send readers into an almost absorbed state of psychosis.Although the film could not hold this exact effect, many of these lines were straight from the novel, except for the Phil Collins references, and were stated under a comical tone that stayed true to the satirical nature of the work. Each of these scenes shows the progression of a Patrick Bateman that has become less of a human and more a product of society. The greatest difference from book to film lies in the scenes of abundant violence.Although the film had to alter certain portions to receive an â€Å"R† not â€Å"NC-17† rating, the movie, even with the old cuts in place, would still not even scratch the surface of the horror and revolting actions found within the novel. Events like the killing of an innocent child at a zoo, the pieces of body left in his Hell’s Kitchen apartment, cannibal ism, and other more disgusting ways of torturing women were not visually placed in the movie.Nevertheless many of them were hinted at throughout which allowed audiences to imagine the terrifying acts that Bateman partook in themselves, actors the ability to play with dialogue, and readers to notice the inner most references to scenes from the book. Not all violence and gore was left to the imagination however, but were subtly shown for example by a scrape on a women’s back or by the image of a severed head tucked away inside of Bateman’s fridge until the climax where shots of former bodies are exposed during a chase seen with a women desperately trying to escape.All of the shots are creatively angled to show just enough violence to make you feel the impact of the act while crafting an air of tension that increases until he cracks. The progression of Patrick Bateman’s mental dysfunction and the unreliability of the main characters perspective, hit its peak at the end of the film. Surreal scenes of confusion and dialogue began to cloud the interactions that Bateman had with those around him. A growing sense of urgency in his demeanor countered by the cold glare of the other characters gave a perfect bridge to the theme of the novel.Now that we see Bateman shocked that his sick acts have gone with out consequence, the audience begins to question whether or not his horrid acts are only mere imagination. The end of the book, and most of the novel, give readers the assumption that these acts must be too extreme to have actually happened. The conclusion of the film lets the wall reliability crash down with the realization that you may have just glimpsed into the mind of the main character. Just like in the book, audiences grasp that Bateman may just simply be more psychotic than first perceived.The unraveling of his sophistication being the first sign brings question to the events that occurred and further notions of insanity. Although much of th e story may have been in the mind of Patrick Bateman, the ideas and fantasies that were birthed their and why they came about, are the root of what both Bret Easton Ellis and Mary Harron are trying to being to question. Was it instilled in a man to have these desires, or was it a society that brought him to it?

Saturday, September 14, 2019

American Government: U S Democracy

Democracy is a system of governance whereby power vested on leaders is held by the population and leadership is through an accountable and transparent electoral system that respects the choice of the majority while listening to the views of the minority. The path to democracy has been long and vibrant with stiff obstacles that have had to be evaded or crushed in order for equality and equity to prevail under a democratic system of governance that promotes respect for individual and collective rights and freedoms.A radical shift from hereditary and monarchial leadership was necessary since this unitary holding of power vested too much privilege and power upon an individual leading to abuse due to self interest. However though democracy is perceived to exist in some regions due to a free electoral system, the process though accountable may bring about individuals who renege on their promises and completely disregard the pillars of democracy leading to a dictatorial regime that is unjus t and oppressive and does not respect the will of the masses.There are some countries that have endeavored to be a model of democracy by striving to grant all citizens an equal status and ensuring that a supreme constitution exists on which fundamental rights and freedoms are anchored. This is not to say that the democratic records of these countries are clean. For any monumental success on democracy to be achieved, society must be prevailed upon to discard certain moral and legal evils to ensure that freedom and equal opportunity thrives.On this front it is safe to say that the United States of America is a true democracy whereby all citizens and visitors coexist peacefully and all disregarding race are guaranteed equal rights and freedoms in the pursuit of their dreams and aspirations (Miroff, Seidelman, & Swanstrom 2007). The American constitution was formulated on the basis that power must always rest upon the people and so provided that all state and national representatives mu st be elected by the people through a fair and transparent election.The constitution further sought to limit the terms of office of a certain government to ensure that a regime may not abuse its authority to disregard the will of the people in order to selfishly retain power. A democracy is characterized by a view for fair representation and a prudent understanding that a separation of power is important to prevent a conflict of interest that might contravene the intentions of a true democracy.Where such separations do not exist or where those divisions are superficial, rule of law becomes geared toward promoting the will of the ruling minority and justice becomes fleeting since there usually results in a breach of the rights and freedoms of the populace. In this respect it becomes important to have three important branches of government whose mandate is clear and there exists clear guidelines on the powers vested upon each arm of government.In any democracy there should be a legisl ative arm whose mandate comes directly from the people and their primary role the formulation of law to act as a basis for unity, growth and oversight. Secondly a judicial system that is impartial and independent for the proper dispensing of justice and the protection of individual rights and freedoms. Lastly an executive is important to represent the sovereignty of a nation and lead the process of protecting the people and service provision. The United States of America has come a long way to reach democratic maturity.This process was full of radical actions by people like Martin Luther who felt that racial segregation was uncharacteristic of a democratic nation. The civil movements of the 60 have brought equality that was important to propel the nation to great social, economic, political and military dominance. Further more women lobby groups that relentlessly advocated for gender equality saw the broadening of democratic space and women have continued to reach influential politi cal and business positions and prospects are there on the possibility of a woman president in the country.Critics to this notion would need to be reminded that a few decades ago the prospect of a black president would have been unimaginable but 2008 brought a new dawn in American politics and democracy in general with the election of Obama as president. This is a result of a fair and accountable electoral system that ensures that the choice of the American people is respected. Miroff, Seidelman, & Swanstrom (2007) adds that the United States continues to ensure that individual rights and freedoms are respected and several bills have been passed by congress to ensure that .Some include the freedom of movement, information, privacy and expression. A robust security system continues to safeguard the rights of citizens to be protected from harm with strict laws enforced to protect property both tangible and intellectual. American government consists of the national federal government an d the state governments. While these states are subject to national legislation by congress, they however retain the power to make decisions that are of interest to these states on issues ranging from education, health, security and the administration of justice.National government consists of an executive, congress and the judiciary. The power of the executive is vested upon the president who may delegate such powers to the vice president and his cabinet for the smooth execution of government functions. The president is also the commander in chief of the armed forces but is also subject to consult with congress over the deployment of soldiers to wars. The executive can also enter into international treaties with approval form senate. The president is also responsible for signing bills into law and retains to an extent the power to veto certain bills.Executive power in the States is held by an elected governor who is responsible for providing leadership in the state and signing bill s into state laws. The most important arm of government is Congress which is granted several powers by the constitution. Congress however works hand in hand with the Senate but the constitution clearly spells out that congress is supreme in law making. Congress has oversight powers over the executive in issues ranging form taxes, military and security, provision of services, providing guidelines to the administration of justice among others.Lastly the last arm of government is the Judiciary whose core function is the administration of justice and the interpretation of the constitution to ensure that law passed by the legislative and executive arms of government do not contravene the constitution. There are federal courts charged with administration of federal laws and state courts subject to state laws. The highest court in the land is the Supreme Court and its decisions are binding upon all subordinate courts whether federal or state.These courts try both criminal and civil cases t o bring redress where violations occur. There have been this believes through out American politics that there is a great influence of a small minority of rich individuals in the outcome of American elections and in the way that elected leaders make their decisions. It is widely accepted that these individuals who are the core contributors in campaign funding will choose individuals whom they feel will contribute towards continuing with policies that will benefit their causes and make them wealthier.This greatly contravenes what the American constitution envisioned since it takes the power of the greater masses to decide elections since the choice of candidates in the primaries is greatly influenced by minority rich and influential individuals. Therefore Americans simply endorses one of the fronted candidate who is simply one of the two fronted by two different rich factions and the notion that Americans choose a president is jus a sham.It is my opinion therefore that we need to inc rease public funding to parties and independent candidates to counter the effect of the rich on Americas politics. It is also important that we see an entrance of more parties to give Americans more choice during elections to improve democracy. References Miroff, B. , Seidelman, R. , &Swanstrom, T. (2007). The Democratic Debate: An Introduction to American Politics. 4th. ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin.